What Is Political Conflict Definition

Making justice an integral part of conflict resolution and the search for peaceful solutions means not only resolving conflicts, but also resolving, transforming and transcending them by transforming them into levers of social dialogue and learning, catalysts for community and cooperation, and commitments to political change, economic and social. By not taking these additional corrective measures, we are rendering justice secondary to peace, undermining both, ensuring the continuation of our conflicts and paving the way for further consequences. Social science literature that examines how political violence affects the region, state, nation, and society. Only if changing interests are blocked, that is, if a growing social consciousness in society is not adapted, the likelihood of overt conflict will increase. Thus, the relationship between the growth of social consciousness in society and its increasing development provides a measure of the probability of conflict. It is a measure of the rigidity of the status quo. A civil war, also known as an internal war, is a war fought within the same state or country between organized groups. Less often, it can also be played between two countries that have emerged from a previously united state. Often, these conflicts involve a group that wants to take control of a region or expresses dissatisfaction with the government. There is usually a desire to overthrow the existing power, or at least to change some of its policies. In many cases, an outside power can intervene on behalf of a party if it shares its ideology or condemns the methods/motivations of its opponents. However, recent research challenges the conclusion that violence is decreasing worldwide, based on the measures used and the statistical basis of these interpretations. In addition, indicators show an increase in violence in the 2010s, heavily fueled by conflicts with transnational jihadist groups in the Middle East.

[37] The number of active conflicts recorded in 2016 and 2019 was the highest. [38] Resource mobilization is a theory of social movement that emphasizes the ability of competing groups to organize and use adequate resources to achieve their goals. [50] Resources can be time, money, organizational skills, and certain social or political opportunities. Political violence occurs when individuals are able to mobilize sufficient resources to act. Human conflicts have been perceived as “systematic” by people of thought and science for at least 2500 years. The Iranian philosopher and poet Zarathustra (600-583 BC) described the conflict as a constant struggle between the “powers of light” and the “powers of darkness” around and in every human individual. The violence was seen as the result of conflict, as evidenced by prehistoric skulls on Chinese soil, which were destroyed by special artifacts. Constructivist is an explanation of ethnic violence and ethnic conflicts. Ethnic and national identities are socially constructed and shaped by social, economic and political processes such as colonization and conquest. Ethnic conflicts are the product of the factors that shape ethnic identity, not ethnicity itself.

[52] After political violence, many changes take place within the state, society and the individual. One problem for many authoritative states is that they are not a consensual society, but often two or more different sub-societies that are balanced against each other within a common political system. This is the case for many African states such as Nigeria. The second cycle of post-war revolutionary movements (1959-68) began with the Cuban Revolution and includes the Algerian Revolution (1962) and the beginnings of the revolutionary conflict in South Vietnam (1960-75). In Latin America, a number of attempts have been made to replicate the Cuban Revolution, sometimes with Cuban help, but these guerrilla movements have failed in Venezuela, Guatemala, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. However, a third cycle of generally successful revolutionary movements (1974-80) dates back to the withdrawal of AMERICAN troops from Vietnam. Revolutionaries took power during this period in Ethiopia, Cambodia, South Vietnam itself, Laos, the African colonies of Portugal (Guinea-Bissau, Angola and Mozambique), Iran, Grenada and Nicaragua. Strong revolutionary movements also emerged during this period in the Philippines, Colombia, Peru, El Salvador and Guatemala. With the end of the Cold War, movements in El Salvador and Guatemala negotiated peace agreements with government agencies that led to their disarmament and reconstitution as legal political parties.

For these reasons, we must carefully consider how we, as individuals and nations, define our enemies, disarm our empathy and compassion, organize our hatred, and rationalize our destructive actions through conflict. For example, we often combine the following to create circular definitions of “the enemy”: Unlike the first three post-war waves, the last revolutionary cycle of the Cold War era (1989-91), which includes the “collapse of communism” in Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and the former Soviet Union, was decidedly anti-socialist and at least rhetorically democratic. Nationalist opposition to Soviet (or Russian) and Yugoslav (or Serbian) rule was also an important factor in this wave. Nonviolent popular movements quickly overthrew communist regimes in a number of countries (and Soviet republics), especially after Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet leader, made it clear that Soviet tanks would not save unpopular leaders. Movements against communism, however, did not have uniform success during this wave; Nonviolent protest was violently suppressed in China in 1989 and was hardly evident in Cuba, Vietnam and North Korea, countries where communism was provoked by popular nationalist movements rather than imposed by the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, a negotiated transition from white racist apartheid rule to democracy in South Africa took place; However, this dramatic political transition has not been accompanied by radical economic changes. In response, the powerless increasingly come to believe that they have only two alternatives: either accept a temporary and tactical capitulation, allowing inequality and exploitation to continue unabated; Or use what the powerful define as “illegitimate” forms of power to break their monopoly and end their exclusive control over power and resources, thereby reinforcing the fears of the powerful, strengthening their resistance, and fostering continued destruction on both sides. Each side behaves toward each other in a way that justifies its worst fears, spinning the engine of violence in a self-destructive circle. On the 20th. In the twentieth century, three developments of great political importance were marked: the growth of democracy, the growth of corporate power, and the growth of propaganda as a means of protecting corporate power from democracy. Freedom and tyranny are not only factors in conflicts between minorities and nation-states, but also in small daily conflicts between parents and youth, managers and employees, governments and citizens, and wherever power is unevenly distributed. If we define political conflicts as those that result from or challenge an unequal distribution of power, relational, religious and cultural power, it is clear that politics takes place everywhere.

This led the Italian writer and semiologist Umberto Eco to brilliantly define fascism as “the simplification of language to the point where complex thinking becomes impossible.” This simplification is evident not only in the crude slogans and stereotypes of fascist rhetoric, but also in the minor ways in which ordinary language is transformed into sermons, prepared scripts and propaganda, as seen, for example, in media coverage after the death of political leaders. While there may be people, times, and places where it is impossible not to respond to violence with violence and evil with evil, it is difficult to distinguish these moments from those that occur every day in ordinary interpersonal conflicts, except by subjective measures of their closeness and impact on us. .